Rehabilitation - Essay Example The discussion in this paper focuses on the rehabilitation as the most efficient way of addressing crime compared to each of the other three methods. In this paper, rehabilitation is considered to be the most valuable rationalization of punishment since it does not concentrate more on punishing the offender but on reforming the offender to be useful to self and society (Duker and Malsch 1957). Through rehabilitation, it is clear that the obligation of the state is to assist those who fell short of societyâ€™s expected moral behavioral standards. The argument is that restoring a socially acceptable life for criminals through rehabilitation will enrich them with skills that can make them self dependent beyond the disadvantages of their constrained life that led to crime. This way, rehabilitation considers the offender and the society which is why it focuses on changing a person to become part of the society and contribute to its growth (Lippman 56). However, the process of making the offender to be part of the society is gradual as the penal system assists the offenders to secure jobs, and become valuable society members. The result is that there are lower crime rates compared to the use of retributive, incapacitation, deterrence, and restoration. Additionally, the implementation of rehabilitation ensures that criminals are off the streets while justice and revenge is granted on victims (Samaha 30). Other advantages of focusing on rehabilitation are that there is reduction in prison overcrowding which goes hand in hand with the reduction on federal spending. For the rehabilitated offender, there are very low chances that the person will resort to crime anymore and this avoids second or more times crime. Besides jobs skills, rehabilitation focuses on granting the offender skills to resolve conflicts, manage money, among other crucial life skills (Duker and Malsch 1958). On overall, rehabilitation results to increased access to safety for the
Photocatalytic Activity Investigation The photocatalytic activity of the modified samples was investigated by the determination of the remaining concentration of the nominated pollutant, acetaldehyde, over various time intervals. Figures. 5 and 6 show the photodecomposition activity of different modified TiOÃ¢â€šâ€š nanoparticles under 8w visible light irradiation in the continuous flow reactor with a flow rate of 95 ml/min. According to Figures. 5 and 6, all the modified samples show much higher photocatalytic activity than the pure TiOÃ¢â€šâ€š, confirming that N and Co doping is an effective way of improving the photocatalytic activity. The highest activity was observed for 1%Co-N-TiOÃ¢â€šâ€š sample, and the 50 min irradiation by visible light resulted in 44.2% of acetaldehyde degradation for this sample. The increased visible light absorption and specific surface area are key factors that influenced the photoactivity of the different modified samples under visible light irradiation compared to pure TiO2. The decrease in the particle size and increase in the BET surface area (Table 1) contribute to the improvement of the acetaldehyde degradation. Table 1 shows that the crystallite size of samples decreases from 21.9 to 14.7 nm; this decrease may be beneficial for the photocatalytic activity. Compared with the N-TiO2 sample, Co-N/TiO2 photocatalysts have a larger surface area, which increases the photoactivity rate because of the large amounts of acetaldehyde molecules being adsorbed on the photocatalytic surface and easily reacted by photogenerated oxidizing species. The light absorption characteristics of the modified samples are extended towards the visible light region after N and Co doping, which implies that the formation of photogenerated charge carriers will be increased under visible light irradiation. Also, cobalt doping with a low cobalt content can act as a charge trap to prevent electron-hole recombination and improve the interfacial charge transfer to degrade acetaldehyde. After the optimal doping ratio of cobalt was exceeded (1wt % Co-N-TiO2), reduced photocatalytic activity was observed. This result can be due to the coverage of the surface of photocatalyst with increased cobalt ions (Co2+) which inhibited interfacial charge transfer due to inadequate amount of light energy available for activation of all the photocatalyst particles. Also due to excessive concentration, Co particles acting as recombination centers for photogenerated electrons and holes . Based on the acetaldehyde degradation results in this study, it is therefore evident that photocatalytic activity is strongly dependent on the doping ratio rather than the band gap of the samples and activities of the Co-N-TiO2 co-doped samples are higher than those of N-TiO2 or pure TiO2. **Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Fig. 5Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â ** **Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Fig. 6Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â ** Kinetic study The Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model has been extensively used to describe heterogeneous photocatalysis on titanium dioxide . This model successfully describes the kinetic of Eq. (3), which is the reaction between hydroxyl radical and adsorbed acetaldehyde. When the photocatalytic reaction obeys a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the relationship between the rate of reaction r (Î¼mol g-1 min-1) and the acetaldehyde concentration Cact. (Î¼mol l-1) can be described as follows in Eq. (4): Where k is the rate constant (Î¼mol g-1 min-1) and Ka is the adsorption constant (l Î¼mol-1). Some assumptions were used in Eq. (4). Only acetaldehyde is adsorbed on the catalyst surface and all intermediates and products desorbed immediately after chemical reaction; therefore, they have not been detected in Eq. (4). The mathematical modelling for the plug photoreactor at unsteady condition with the assumption of isothermal condition, ignored diffusion resistance and constant flow rate, the mass balance equation inside the continuous photoreactor would become as follows in Eq. (5): Where Q is the volumetric flow rate (l min-1), W is the weight of catalyst (g), V is the volume of the reactor (l), and t is the time of experiment (min). Kinetic parameters (k, K) were calculated using the Nelder-Mead method, which was used through computer programming in MATLAB by minimization of sum of squared of relative error, the difference between the calculated and experimental outlet concentration results, as the following objective function: By minimization of Eq. (6), kinetic parameters (k, Ka) are predicted and shown in Table 3. A good agreement among the predicted and experimental data were found that are shown in Fig. 7.
Mathematical logic is something that has been around for a very long time. Centuries Ago Greek and other logicians tried to make sense out of mathematical proofs. As time went on other people tried to do the same thing but using only symbols and variables. But I will get into detail about that a little later. There is also something called set theory, which is related with this. In mathematical logic a lot of terms are used such as axiom and proofs. A lot of things in math can be proven, but there are still some things that will probably always remain theories or ideas.
Mathematical Logic is something that has a very long history behind it. It has been debated on for many centuries. If someone were to divide mathematical logic into groups they would get two major groups. Both groups are very long. One is called â€œThe history of formal deductionâ€ and it goes all the way back to Aristotle and Euclid and other people who lived at that time. The other is â€œthe history of mathematical analysisâ€ which goes back to the times of Archimedes, who was in the same era as Aristotle and Euclid. These to groups or streams were separate for a long time until Newton invented Calculus, which brought Math and logic together.
Â Â Â Â Â Somebody who studies mathematical logic and gives his or her own concepts about it is called a logician. Some well known logicians include Boole and Frege. They were trying to give a definite form to what formal deduction really was. Aristotle had already done such a thing but he had done it with language, Boole wanted to do it with only Symbols. Frege came up with â€œPredicate Calculusâ€.
As time went on people did not make new theories as much as they used to in the time of Aristotle. They mostly concentrated on expanding on theories that have been said centuries ago, proving those theories or putting them into symbolic form.
Table of Logicians*
*This Table has a few of the Logicians listed in my book
Words that have to do with logic like and, or, not are given symbols like &, V, or an upside down L reversed. The Letters X, Y, Z and so on are commonly used as variables and P, Q, R are used as predicates, properties or relations.
Sometimes there are theories that have to do with machines that do not exist and usually have things in them that are infinite and they usually work with letters and numbers.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.